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4163-60-4, Beta-D-Galactose pentaacetate, CAS:4163-60-4

4163-60-4, Beta-D-Galactose pentaacetate, CAS:4163-60-4
C16H22O11 / 390.34



Beta-D-Galactose pentaacetate, also known as pentaacetyl-beta-D-galactose or PAG, is a colorless to yellow crystalline powder that belongs to the family of galactose derivatives. It is soluble in some organic solvents, such as acetone and ethyl acetate, but insoluble in water. PAG is widely used in various fields, such as organic synthesis, pharmaceuticals, and food industries. Its benefits include enhancing the stability of drugs, masking unpleasant tastes or odors, and improving the shelf life of food products.

Physical and Chemical Properties

PAG has a molecular formula of C16H22O11 and a molar mass of 390.34 g/mol. It has a melting point range between 126-128°C and a boiling point of 336°C. Its solubility in water is less than 0.1 g/100ml, while its solubility in ethanol is approximately 40 g/100mL. PAG has a sweet odor and is non-toxic to humans.

Synthesis and Characterization

The synthesis of PAG is accomplished through the acetylation of beta-D-galactose using acetic anhydride as the acetylating agent. The reaction takes place in a solvent system consisting of dichloromethane and pyridine. The product is purified by recrystallization from an appropriate solvent. Several spectroscopic techniques, such as infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectrometry (MS), are used for the characterization of PAG.

Analytical Methods

Various analytical methods have been established for the quantification and analysis of PAG. HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography) is commonly used for determining the purity of PAG. NMR and MS techniques are utilized for the identification and characterization of PAG in chemical reactions or biological fluids.

Biological Properties

Studies have shown that PAG has several biological properties that make it useful in the fields of medicine and biotechnology. It has been reported to have antiviral and anti-inflammatory activities. PAG has also been found to enhance the immune system's response to various pathogens.

Toxicity and Safety in Scientific Experiments

Several toxicity studies have been conducted to evaluate the safety of PAG. When administered in high doses, PAG has been found to cause liver and kidney damage in rats. However, when tested on humans, PAG was found to be safe and well-tolerated in doses up to 1g.

Applications in Scientific Experiments

PAG has various applications in scientific experiments. It is used as a derivatizing agent in gas chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses. It is also used as a reagent for the synthesis of several active pharmaceutical ingredients.

Current State of Research

Recent studies have focused on the development of new synthesis methods for PAG and its derivatives. Several researchers are investigating the use of PAG as an anti-inflammatory agent and its potential application in vaccine development.

Potential Implications in Various Fields of Research and Industry

The potential implications of PAG in different fields of research and industry are immense. It can be used as a food additives to improve the storage stability of various food products. In the medical field, PAG can be used as an adjuvant in vaccines to enhance the immune response. Furthermore, PAG has the potential to be used as a precursor for the synthesis of several pharmacologically active compounds.

Limitations and Future Directions

Despite its potential, several limitations exist in the use of PAG. One of the primary limitations is its toxicological effects when administered in high doses. Further research is required to explore the potential side effects of PAG and to determine its safe dosage range. In addition, research into the use of PAG derivatives may provide insight into its potential as an active pharmaceutical ingredient.

Future Directions:

- Investigating the use of PAG in developing vaccines against viral infections

- Studying the potential therapeutic effects of PAG in neurological disorders

- Examining the use of PAG in designing targeted drug delivery systems

- Developing new methods for synthesizing PAG and its derivatives

- Investigating the use of PAG as a food additive to improve the shelf life of food products.

CAS Number4163-60-4
Product Namebeta-D-Galactose pentaacetate
IUPAC Name[(2R,3S,4S,5R,6S)-3,4,5,6-tetraacetyloxyoxan-2-yl]methyl acetate
Molecular FormulaC16H22O11
Molecular Weight390.34 g/mol
Synonyms1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranose, 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-acetylgalactopyranose, beta-penta-O-acetyl-D-galactopyranose
Canonical SMILESCC(=O)OCC1C(C(C(C(O1)OC(=O)C)OC(=O)C)OC(=O)C)OC(=O)C
Isomeric SMILESCC(=O)OC[C@@H]1[C@@H]([C@@H]([C@H]([C@@H](O1)OC(=O)C)OC(=O)C)OC(=O)C)OC(=O)C

CAS No: 4163-60-4 Synonyms: b-D-Galactose pentaacetate MDL No: MFCD00063259 Chemical Formula: C16H22O11 Molecular Weight: 390.34


Product name: Beta-D-Galactose pentaacetate, 1,2,3,4,6-Penta-O-acetyl-beta-D-galactopyranose       CAS: 4163-60-4       

M.F.C16H22O11          M.W.: 390.34          Batch No: 20130213             Quantity: 1.5kg





White crystal powder



Soluble in CHCl3, insoluble in water.

The solution should be clourless and clear. (1g/10mL in CHCl3)



IR and TLC


Melting point

142  ~  146°C

143 ~146 

Specific rotation

[a]D20 (in CHCl3)

+23 ~  +25o


Water content (K.F.)



Residue on ignition

Max. 0.1%



Should be one spot

One spot




Assay (HPLC)

Min. 99%



1. Khiar N, Martin-Lomas M, J. Org. Chem. 1995, Vol60, p7017-7021
2. Spero L, Ballou CE, Link KP, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1949, Vol71, p3740


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